Applied and Environmental Soil Science (2023)

Research Article

03 Oct 2022

Remediation of Soils Contaminated by Fluoride Using a Fermentation Product of Seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii)

Ruth Lorivi Moirana|Josephine Mkunda|...|Kelvin Mtei

This study investigated the efficacy of fermented seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) on the remediation of fluoride-contaminated soil. The soil was amended with either 1.25, 3.0, or 5.0% (w/w) fermented seaweed (FSW), parallel with the controls (0%). The amendment improved the physicochemical properties of the soil particularly pH regulated from strong alkaline (9.3) to neutral (7.0) which is essential for germination, crop growth, and yield. The amount of water soluble-fluoride (Ws-F) dropped from 81.7 ± 3.1 mg/kg to 42.7 ± 2.4, 33.7 ± 1.2, 19.6 ± 0.9, and 12 ± 1.3 mg/kg following 0, 1.25, 3, and 5% amendment dosage, respectively. Most of the Ws-F was converted into exchangeable fluoride (Ex-F) and to fluoride-bound to iron and manganese (Fe/Mn-F). Furthermore, the amendment also enhanced microbial mass and diversity in the soil. The FSW contains organic acids which participate in ionic bonding with the multivalent cations in the soil. The formed compound participates in ion exchange with clay or with anionic adsorption to positively charged clay sites at the edges. This interaction is further essential for enhancing the fluoride holding capacity of the soil. The use of seaweed reduced the bioavailability of fluoride in the agricultural soils and had positive effects on promoting soil fertility. However, further studies to observe its effects on crop performance is of significance.

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Characterization and Classification of Soils and Land Suitability Evaluation for the Production of Major Crops at Anzecha Watershed, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia

Semu Moshago|Alemayehu Regassa|Teshome Yitbarek

The study was conducted at Anzecha watershed in Gurage Zone, Ethiopia, to characterize and classify the soils and to evaluate the physical land suitability of the area for the production of major crops (maize, teff, and wheat). The soils were classified based on World Reference Base for soil resource. The physical land suitability was made following FAO guideline using maximum limitation method. Four profiles were opened along toposequence and designate as upper, middle, lower, and toe slope positions (pedons 1, 2, 3, and 4), respectively. Soils of the watershed had low level of available phosphorous, low electrical conductivity, no coarse fragments, low acidity, and great depth. The soils were classified as Acrisols, Nitisols, and Vertisols. The land suitability evaluation for production of major crops showed that upper slope position (20.8%) was currently not suitable (N1) for maize, teff, and wheat. Middle slope position (27.3%) was marginally suitable (S3) for maize, teff, and wheat. Lower slope position (32.5%) was moderately suitable (S2) for maize and marginally suitable (S3) for teff and wheat. Toe slope position (19.4%) was moderately suitable (S2) for maize and teff and marginally suitable (S3) for wheat. There is no topographic position that was classified as highly suitable (S1). Hence, farmers of the area should implement major land improvement practice to create optimum condition for production of major crops or should change a land utilization type. Moreover, the soils of the study area were acidic and, therefore, there has to be acid soils management strategy in the area.

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(Video) Applied and Environmental Science Track - ASM Microbe 2022

Research Article

19 Sep 2022

(Video) CTE Plant And Soil Science
Soil Characteristics and Pedoclimatic Evaluation of Rainfed Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the Mayo-Lemié Division, South-Western Chad

Agoubli Issine|Désiré Tsozué|...|Bertin Pagna Kagonbé

In recent decades, many regions in the Chad Republic in Central Africa have experienced a continuous decline in agricultural yields. In order to determine the main factors leading to this decline in yields and mainly Sorghum yields, this study was conducted in South-Western Chad, in the Sudano-Sahelian environment. Three soil profiles of variable depths, namely, M1, M2, and M3, were dug along a toposequence, respectively, in the footslope, mid-slope, and the upslope. Soil samples collected from each horizon in the three soil profiles were labelled and sent to laboratories for mineralogical, geochemical, and physicochemical analyses. For land evaluation, climatic characteristics are divided into rating groups with respect to the crop and its climatic requirements. Parametric values were attributed to each soil characteristic for soil evaluation and the land index calculated. The main minerals identified in the studied soils are quartz, K-feldspars, plagioclase, kaolinite, smectite, illite, associated to traces of anatase, sepiolite, calcite, and interstratified minerals. In all the analyzed samples, silicon content is very high. It is closely followed by aluminum, iron, and potassium. The presence of kaolinite and smectite suggests that monosiallitisation is a crystallochemical processes acting at the bottom of profile towards bisiallitisation. All samples collected from the three soil profile horizons are mainly sandy and globally poor in nutrients. The pedoclimatic assessment of Sorghum cultivation reveals that the studied soils are marginally to moderately suitable for the production of Sorghum due to soil texture, wetness, and soil fertility. The decline in yields is related to low base saturation, in line with low exchange base content in the studied soils. These limitations could be solved by restoration of the cation balance through fertilization and liming, combining organic inputs with mineral fertilizer, and the realization of channels for the drainage of water at the base of the soil sequence.

Research Article

(Video) UP BScAgric (Applied Plant and Soil Sciences)

16 Sep 2022

Effect of Soil Management Practices on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties: A Case of Wera Sub-Watershed, Southern Ethiopia

Tamrat Sinore|Mulatu Chernet|...|Mekiso Yohannes

Soil degradation is a global challenge for agricultural productivity. To tackle this, the Ethiopian government and different NGOs launched soil management technologies in different parts of Ethiopia, including the Wera sub-watershed in Anlemo district, southern Ethiopia. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of soil management practices on soil properties at various landscape positions in the Wera sub-watershed. To achieve the intended objective, the 27 composite soil samples were collected from soil bund with desho grass, fanya-juu with desho grass and no management practices (control) with three replications at three landscape positions from 0 to 30 cm depth whereas, 27 undisturbed soil samples were collected for bulk density analysis. The collected soil samples were analyzed for soil texture, soil reaction, cation exchange capacity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus. The result showed that soil bund with desho grass and fanya-juu with desho grass were significantly influenced selected soil physico-chemical properties when compared with no management measures. In addition, landscape position has significantly () influenced the selected physico-chemical properties of soil. Hereafter, soil bund with desho grass and fanya-juu with desho grass practices were found to be effective in changing landscape positions and advancing soil productiveness. Therefore, implementing soil bund with desho grass and fanya-juu with desho grass by considering landscape position is vital for increasing soil productivity via minimizing soil loss.

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Sustainable Agricultural Management of Land Using Technology for Soil and Water Conservation within the Central Rift Valley, Central Ethiopia

Tesfaye Birhan|Wondimagegnehu Tekalign

Ethiopia has used several techniques for conserving water and soil. However, different sociocultural and technical problems have been affecting their implementation. The study is aimed at assessing sustainable agricultural management of land implementations through traditional and modern conservation of soil and water technologies in the central Rift Valley, Ethiopia. The research approach used was a descriptive survey using a cross-sectional research design. Household heads were chosen at random from the three kebeles, while representatives were chosen using a proportionate sample technique. Furthermore, kebeles and key informants were selected by using a purposive sampling technique. Data were collected through questionnaires, key informant interviews, and field observation. The results show that both traditional and contemporary methods for conserving soil and water have advantages and disadvantages of their own, and some of them have been combined. A number of factors, including age, family size, education, topography, distance from the homestead, income, and the availability of training, have a big impact on whether or not soil and water conservation methods are adopted. The majority of farmers use mixed farming followed by crop production to meet their livelihood needs. The most widely implemented physical measure was terracing, followed by stone bunds. The farmers practiced traditional waterways, furrows, check dams, terracing, and stone bunds as traditional conservation practices. Agroforestry, followed by grass strip and area closure, was the most commonly implemented vegetative measure. Besides, animal manure, followed by animal parking, was the most implemented agronomic measure. The concerned stakeholders need to pay more attention to community mobilization for the conservation, upkeep, and development of traditional and modern soil and water conservation structures. In order to employ traditional and contemporary soil and water conservation measures for sustainable agricultural land management practices, experts need to instruct the local farmers.

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Research Article

07 Sep 2022

Statistical and SWAT Model-Based Performance Evaluation of RCMs in Modeling Streamflow and Sediment Yield at Upper Awash Sub-Basin, Ethiopia

Bekan Chelkeba Tumsa

(Video) Occupational Video - Soil Scientist

The focus of this study was to evaluate the performance of the regional climate models with regard to simulating streamflow, sediment yield, precipitation, and temperatures. It is recognized that RCMs are not free of bias and uncertainty when simulating climate variables. The evaluation was about simulating annual climatology, annual cycles, and annual variability of climate variables by statistical tools and streamflow and sediment yield by SWAT model output. The study used observed and CORDEX Africa-44 meteorological data for RACMO22T, RCA4, CCLM4-8-17, and HIRHAM5 models using grid points. This analysis of the mean annual rainfall cycle in the summer season shows that all RCMs were underestimated. However, RACMO22T and RCA4 are better suited for simulating climate variables. The higher errors were associated with the simulations of maximum and minimum temperatures in the highest terrain area of the catchment. The statistical analysis with climatology indicates that all RCM was performed in much the same way, except for the seasonal perspective. In this case, RACMO22T was best able to simulate streamflow and sediment yield with PBIAS of 0.14, NSE of 0.91, R2 of 0.82, R2 of 0.72, NSE of 0.78, and PBIAS of −2.61%, respectively. RCA4 simulated streamflow better, but it underestimated the simulated sediment yield. The result proved that RACMO22T and RCA4 performed better in the upper floodplain area. The performance of the climate model varied with catchments, locations, and terrains. The output of this statistical and SWAT model shows that climate models do not accurately simulate hydro-climatological variables. Finally, this study showed that climate models were better at simulating the rainy season than the dry season. This integration of statistical tools and the SWAT model to analyze the RCM’s performance is a unique method to improve the quality of the output for its implementation in maintaining water balance and sediment load reduction.

FAQs

What is applied soil science? ›

Applied soil science is concerned with the properties of the major soils of the world and how they can help determine the potential and constraints of the corresponding land units for ecosystem service delivery, including agricultural and forestry production, regulatory performance and land management requirements.

Why is soil science important in environmental science? ›

Soil is vital for the agricultural, forestry and building industries, holds a substantial amount of the world's carbon and has a fundamental role in cycling nutrients, controlling water drainage, and removing pollutants. These important ecosystem services mean that soil science is more important than ever.

What are the fields specializations in soil science? ›

Soil Science Practice

Academically, soil scientists tend to be drawn to one of five areas of specialization: microbiology, pedology

pedology
Noun. pedologist (plural pedologists) A scientist who studies origins, composition and distribution of soils and the materials from which soils are formed.
https://en.wiktionary.org › wiki › pedologist
, edaphology, physics or chemistry.

What is soil and environmental management? ›

(Same as Plant, Soil and Agricultural Systems 401) A study of micro- and macro organisms and environmental factors that cause disease in plants of agricultural importance; of the mechanisms by which these factors induce disease in plants; and of the methods for managing diseases and reducing the damage they cause.

What is an example of an applied science? ›

A doctor administering a drug to lower a person's cholesterol is an example of applied science. Applied science also creates new technologies based on basic science. For example, designing windmills to capture wind energy is applied science (Figure below). This technology relies, however, on basic science.

How many years course is soil science? ›

It is a Four year bachelor's degree program and graduates of this course have Career opportunities as crop producers, environmental scientists etc.

Is soil science a good career? ›

Soil science is an important career! A soil scientist contributes directly to the health of our environment through proper management of this essential resource. Soil scientists enjoy a variety of options for employment, as well as opportunities for advancement through additional education

education
Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, approaches, methodologies and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community.
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Teacher_education
.

What is a person who studies soil called? ›

A soil scientist is a person who is qualified to evaluate and interpret soils and soil-related data for the purpose of understanding soil resources as they contribute to not only agricultural production, but as they affect environmental quality and as they are managed for protection of human health and the environment.

What is a soil scientist called? ›

Soil scientists include agrologists, pedologists

pedologists
Noun. pedologist (plural pedologists) A scientist who studies origins, composition and distribution of soils and the materials from which soils are formed.
https://en.wiktionary.org › wiki › pedologist
and soil classifiers.

Where can I work if I study soil science? ›

As a Soil Scientist, you can work in:
  • Environmental consultancies.
  • Research establishments.
  • Commercial and industrial organizations.
  • Universities and other educational institutions.
  • Voluntary or charitable environmental organizations.
  • The Civil Service.
  • Public education centres.
  • Food production companies.

How much does a soil scientist earn? ›

A Soil or Plant Scientist

Plant Scientist
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field.
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Botany
can earn average salaries in a range of $39,650 to $117,450 based on education and tenure levels. get an average salary of seventy-three thousand and fourty dollars per year. are paid most highly in Maryland, where they get an average salary rate of close to $107,050.

What are the 2 branches of soil science? ›

This is the conceptual perspective of pedology

pedology
Noun. pedologist (plural pedologists) A scientist who studies origins, composition and distribution of soils and the materials from which soils are formed.
https://en.wiktionary.org › wiki › pedologist
and edaphology, the two main branches of soil science. Pedology is the study of soil in its natural setting. Edaphology is the study of soil in relation to soil-dependent uses. Both branches apply a combination of soil physics, soil chemistry, and soil biology.

What is a career in soil? ›

Soil scientists work for federal and state governments, universities, and the private sector. The job of a soil scientist includes collection of soil data, consultation, investigation, evaluation, interpretation, planning or inspection relating to soil science.

What are 5 applied sciences? ›

Here are 10 examples of different applied science fields:
  • Aerospace engineering. ...
  • Agricultural engineering. ...
  • Architectural engineering. ...
  • Biomedical engineering. ...
  • Civil engineering. ...
  • Computer science. ...
  • Mathematics. ...
  • Mechanical engineering.

What are the 6 applied sciences? ›

Applied Sciences
  • Agricultural Science.
  • Computer Science.
  • Energy.
  • Engineering.
  • Food Science.
  • Forensic Science.
  • Transportation.

Why is it called applied science? ›

What is Applied Science? Applied science is a discipline that is used to apply existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, for example: technology or inventions. In natural science, basic science (or pure science) is used to develop information to explain phenomena in the natural world.

What subjects are needed for Soil Science? ›

A candidate must have Mathematics for at least 60% and 60% for Physical Sciences. General introduction to inorganic, analytical and physical chemistry.

Which faculty is Soil Science? ›

THE Department of Crop and Soil Science is one of the Departments in the Faculty of Agriculture, created at the onset of the Faculty of Agriculture in 2005. The Department has three options namely, Crop Production, Crop Protection and Soil Science.

Is Soil Science a branch of agriculture? ›

Among several branches of agriculture, soil science is of great significance because of its direct influence on plant growth and nutrient supply. The study of soil as a natural body that is created by natural forces on the surface of the earth on which plants grow.

How hard is it to become a soil scientist? ›

A bachelor's degree in chemistry, crop science, soil science, biology or a related field, such as horticulture, plant physiology or environmental science is required to become a soil scientist. There are some positions, especially those that are more research-driven, that require a master's or doctorate degree.

What are the benefits of being a soil scientist? ›

Soil scientists earn a median salary of $51,200 per year, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Soil scientists generally receive benefits, such as paid sick leave and vacations, health insurance, and pension plans.

How many hours a week do soil scientists work? ›

Work Environment

Most soil scientists work 40 hours a week. Their job is varied, ranging from fieldwork collecting samples, to labwork analyzing their findings.

What is another name for soil science? ›

Pedology

Pedology
Noun. pedologist (plural pedologists) A scientist who studies origins, composition and distribution of soils and the materials from which soils are formed.
https://en.wiktionary.org › wiki › pedologist
(from Greek: πέδον, pedon, "soil"; and λόγος, logos, "study") is a discipline within soil science which focuses on understanding and characterizing soil formation, evolution, and the theoretical frameworks for modeling soil bodies, often in the context of the natural environment.

Who is the father of soil science? ›

Celebrating the 175th anniversary of Vasily Dokuchaev, the father of soil science. Born in Russia on 1st March 1846, Vasily Vasilyevich Dokuchaev is a very well-known figure to all soil scientists worldwide. As a Professor of Mineralogy and Geology at the St.

What can you do with a PHD in soil science? ›

Career Opportunities:

Soil scientists with advanced degrees may find employment in government agencies, national labs, academia, private business, environmental and agricultural consulting, and organic, international, and sustainable agriculture.

What do environmental scientists do? ›

Environmental scientists use their knowledge of the natural sciences to protect the environment. Environmental scientists and specialists use their knowledge of the natural sciences to protect the environment and human health. They may clean up polluted areas, advise policymakers, or work with industry to reduce waste.

What are 5 components of soil? ›

Soil is a material composed of five ingredients — minerals, soil organic matter, living organisms, gas, and water. Soil minerals are divided into three size classes — clay, silt, and sand (Figure 1); the percentages of particles in these size classes is called soil texture.

What is an example of a career in soils? ›

Environmental soil scientists work for private consulting firms (like Agri-Waste Technology), government agencies (like the USDA's Natural Resource Conservation Service), municipal governments, or even freelance as a sideline job. Soil scientists work on land application of waste and stormwater issues.

Can a soil scientist work in a mine? ›

Soil Scientists in Mining Operation

During mine operation, Soil Scientists would help examine the soil, and check if it is all right to start digging, and if there is no contaminated soil. During that process, the soil scientists would be examining soil.

How much does a soil scientist earn per month in South Africa? ›

The average salary range for a Soil Scientist is between ZAR 356,555 and ZAR 618,878. On average, a Bachelor's Degree is the highest level of education for a Soil Scientist. This compensation analysis is based on salary survey data collected directly from employers and anonymous employees in Cape Town, South Africa.

What is another name for a soil scientist what does he do? ›

What is another name for a soil scientist? What does he do? pedologists. pedologists study soil, soil formation, and erosion.

How do you get into Soil Science? ›

Certified Professional Soil Scientist (CPSS) Requirements:

Minimum of Bachelor's Degree in Soils or related field. 5 years post Bachelor's, 3 years post Master's or PhD. Credential forms approved by board. Passing of Fundamentals exam.

Are plant scientists in demand? ›

Vacancies for this career have increased by 43.96 percent nationwide in that time, with an average growth of 2.75 percent per year. Demand for Soil and Plant Scientists is expected to go up, with an expected 5,050 new jobs filled by 2029.
...
Also known as:
California1,590
Oregon560
5 more rows

What are the 3 classifications of soil? ›

Soil can be classified into three primary types based on its texture – sand, silt and clay. However, the percentage of these can vary, resulting in more compound types of soil such as loamy sand, sandy clay, silty clay, etc. 2.

What are the 6 principles of soil health? ›

The six soil health principles are:

Cover the Soil. Minimize Soil Disturbance. Increase Diversity. Maintain Continuous Living Plants/Roots.

What is the 2 layer of soil called? ›

The second layer of soil is called top soil. A - Horizon is known as topsoil.

What are the 7 methods of soil conservation? ›

Soil conservation practices are tools the farmer can use to prevent soil degradation and build organic matter. These practices include: crop rotation, reduced tillage, mulching, cover cropping and cross-slope farming. farmers to increase soil organic matter content, soil structure and rooting depth.

What are the 8 types of soil? ›

There are eight soil deposits in India. They are alluvial soil, black soil, red soil, laterite soil, desert or arid soil, and forest and mountainous soil, peaty or marsh soil and Saline or alkaline soil. These soils are formed by the sediments brought down by the rivers.

What do soils engineers do? ›

A soil engineer, also known as a soils engineer or a geotechnical engineer, is a civil engineer who specializes in evaluating the characteristics of the ground upon which a structure is built. A soil engineer investigates and analyzes a site for such qualities as soil characteristics, composition, and drainage.

Do environmental scientists travel? ›

Environmental scientists do work in a lab most of the time, but since they work on special projects, they often travel to complete fieldwork as well.

What are the 4 key types of environmental factors? ›

Air, water, climate, soil, natural vegetation and landforms are all environmental factors. By definition, the environmental factors affect everyday living, and play a key role in bringing health differences across the geographic areas.

What are the 3 rules of the environment? ›

The three R's stands for: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. This rule is part of the waste hierarchy which is a process used to protect the environment and conserve resources through a priority approach. The aim is to get the most practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.

What does applied science do? ›

What is Applied Science? Applied science is a discipline that is used to apply existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, for example: technology or inventions. In natural science, basic science (or pure science) is used to develop information to explain phenomena in the natural world.

How are applied to the soil? ›

At Planting. During planting, fertilizer is applied below the soil surface close to the seed row. Often, the fertilizer is placed 1 to 2 inches below (or below and to the side) of the seed row. In cool, wet areas, a “starter application” of fertilizer is placed in a subsurface band to boost seedling growth.

What is agriculture applied science? ›

Agricultural technicians work with agricultural scientists in food, fiber and animal research, production and processing. Under the scientist's supervision, they will conduct tests and experiments to improve yield and quality of crops or to increase the resistance of plants and animals to disease or insects.

What are the subjects in soil science? ›

It includes 8 major topics - soil chemistry, soil mineralogy, soil organic matter, soil physics, soil biology, soil fertility, soil nutrient management, soil genesis & classification. This course will provide a basic understanding of all the key concepts and terminologies of every aspect of soil.

Is applied science a good degree? ›

An A.A.S. degree is one of the best associate degrees for students who would like to start their career directly out of college. This type of associate degree is also excellent for students who seek a non-routine, hands-on, professional occupation.

What are the 3 career opportunities in applied science? ›

Some popular applied science careers include: blueprint drafter, medical technician, medical sonographer, dental hygienist, veterinary technician, computer repair technician, physical therapist assistant, construction foreman, systems engineer, and radiologic technologist.

What are 5 applied sciences? ›

Here are 10 examples of different applied science fields:
  • Aerospace engineering. ...
  • Agricultural engineering. ...
  • Architectural engineering. ...
  • Biomedical engineering. ...
  • Civil engineering. ...
  • Computer science. ...
  • Mathematics. ...
  • Mechanical engineering.

What are the 4 soil processes? ›

Four basic processes occur in soils— additions, losses, transformations (changes), and translocation (movement).

What are the 7 uses of soil? ›

Various uses of soil are:
  • The plants that are grown in soil can be used for food, clothing, recreation, aesthetics, building materials, medicines, etc.
  • Soil has vital nutrients for plants.
  • Soil is an important part of the building process.
  • Clay soil is used in making pottery.
  • Soil is used in wastewater treatment plants.

What are the 6 applied sciences? ›

Applied Sciences
  • Agricultural Science.
  • Computer Science.
  • Energy.
  • Engineering.
  • Food Science.
  • Forensic Science.
  • Transportation.

What is environmental applied science? ›

The Environmental Applied Science Technology program teaches you scientific theory in classes such as environmental microbiology, soil science, air quality, environmental chemistry, environmental management, and site assessments.

What are the best courses in Agricultural Science? ›

Some top specializations are listed below:
  • Agronomy.
  • Horticulture.
  • Floriculture.
  • Agriculture Economics.
  • Forestry.
  • Plant Breeding.
  • Agriculture Genetics.
  • Hydroponics.

Where can I work if I study soil science? ›

As a Soil Scientist, you can work in:
  • Environmental consultancies.
  • Research establishments.
  • Commercial and industrial organizations.
  • Universities and other educational institutions.
  • Voluntary or charitable environmental organizations.
  • The Civil Service.
  • Public education centres.
  • Food production companies.

How much does a soil scientist earn? ›

A Soil or Plant Scientist

Plant Scientist
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field.
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Botany
can earn average salaries in a range of $39,650 to $117,450 based on education and tenure levels. get an average salary of seventy-three thousand and fourty dollars per year. are paid most highly in Maryland, where they get an average salary rate of close to $107,050.

What is a soil scientist called? ›

Soil scientists include agrologists, pedologists

pedologists
Noun. pedologist (plural pedologists) A scientist who studies origins, composition and distribution of soils and the materials from which soils are formed.
https://en.wiktionary.org › wiki › pedologist
and soil classifiers.

Videos

1. Soil Science
(ILExtensionHKMW)
2. The Hans Jenny Memorial Lecture in Soil Science - The Genius of Soil
(UC Berkeley Events)
3. Living Soil Film
(Soil Health Institute)
4. GFFA 2022 Expert Panel 1 - International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS)
(bmel)
5. Watch this video if you want to study Soil Science | Stellenbosch University
(Stellenbosch University AgriSciences)
6. Can Cover Crops Reduce Phosphorus Loss from Surface Applied Fertilizer?
(Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences Secondary Major at Kansas State University)
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